Trouble distinguishing similar sounds (“pig and big”) or confusing the sequence of heard or spoken sounds (“ephelant”).

Symptoms Strategies
Has trouble distinguishing between individual sounds in spoken language (sh-ch, th-ph).

May mispronounce new vocabulary words and will have trouble with foreign language classes

  • Face the student and speak slowly and distinctly. Have student look at you and watch your lips.
  • Seat student near the front of the room.
Is unable to recognize differences between whole words that are similar in sound.

Trouble discriminating sounds in dictated words (pen-pin, hem-him, are-our).

  • Use nonsense syllables for dictation.
  • Use tape recorder exercises for practice at home and school.
  • Use multisensory lessons when possible.
Spells phonetically (i.e., motion-mosion).

Will select wrong vowels and blends or omit vowels altogether (warm-wrm, rest-rus).

  • Provide exposure to many words with same spelling pattern through sentence dictation, bingo-type drill, oral reading, etc.
  • Know spelling rules.
  • Make spelling a thinking subject using a multisensory approach.
Has trouble blending letters and words.
  • Use movable alphabet to reinforce sound.
  • Play bingo-type game of blends.
  • Use tape recorder to model blend sounds.
  • Use multisensory approach when appropriate.
Unable to rhyme, difficulty with rhythm.

May speak in a monotone voice or have unnatural pitch.

  • Provide practice in noticing, describing and comparing details: two sounds, two sentences, two paragraphs.
  • Teach songs that help with rhythm.
Exhibits spelling deterioration when primarily focusing on subject content for tests, written work, etc.
  • Focus on primary purpose of task; either do not penalize for spelling or give two grades.
  • May need technology to compensate for weakness.